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The development of electronic computers in the USSR and its prospects under capitalism

Развитие электронно-вычислительной техники в СССР и ее перспективы при капитализме

The theme of computer technology in the socialist Russia is quite interesting and almost 30 years of rule by the bourgeoisie slandered the order lackeys from the keyboard and the pen with web-Cam bloggers and intellectuals. Defending for a fee or stupidity of the capitalist relations of production proburivaja intellectuals, many journalistic Horde, loves to kick our computers and large computing complexes of the Soviet era on the subject of quality, due to the unreliability of some of the models, their technical obsolescence, and leaving much to be desired production, plus the difficulties in operation in comparison with foreign analogues of that time. Computers are compared under the hypocritical talk about the fact that the Western computers were better and more reliable Advice that computers are, in principle, do not know how, etc. Alas, this in the era of stagnation and late in perestroika, was the place to be.
However, this state of Affairs was not always the case.

1. the range of computer technology in the Soviet Union was much broader than it seems to the layman.
2. it is impossible mechanically to transfer economic and political vices of the late USSR and the quality of the products produced in that period of time for the whole period of existence of the Soviet state and the quality of performance of the older models of computers, no Western copies, but completely original projects. The falling quality and degradation in this region production began when after the death of Stalin seized upon the helm of the counter-revolutionaries, Trotskyists began quietly, under the table, conduct in the USSR, its counter-revolutionary policy, market reforms, greatly crippled the work of the entire Soviet national economic complex, violated his work on the implementation of the plan to meet the growing needs of the workers. But more on that below.

Touch on the theme of persecution of Cybernetics in Stalin’s Soviet Union, why it was, and what drove. Was there a reason? Here is an article on Cybernetics from the Brief philosophical dictionary, edited by M. Rosenthal and P. Yudin, 1954

“CYBERNETICS (from ancient Greek. word meaning helmsman, Manager) — a reactionary pseudo-science, originated in the USA after the second world war and became widespread in other capitalist countries; form of modern mechanicism. The adherents of Cybernetics define it as a universal science of relations and communications in technology, in living beings and public life, “General organizations” and the management of all processes in nature and society. Thus Cybernetics identifies mechanical, biological, and social relationships and patterns. Like any mechanistic theory, Cybernetics denies the qualitative uniqueness of patterns of various forms of existence and development of matter, reducing them to mechanical laws. Cybernetics arose on the basis of the modern development of electronics, especially the newest high-speed calculating machines, automation and remote control. Unlike the old mechanism of the XVII-XVIII centuries. Cybernetics examines the physiological and social phenomena by analogy not with simple mechanisms and electronic machines and devices, identifying the brain with the work of the accounting machine, and social life — with system electro – and radio communications. Essentially Cybernetics directed against the materialist dialectics, modern scientific physiology, based on I. P. Pavlov, and Marxist, scientific understanding of laws of social life. This mechanistic metaphysical pseudoscience gets on very well with idealism in philosophy, psychology, and sociology. Cybernetics clearly expresses one of the basic features of bourgeois ideology — its inhumanity, desire to turn the workers into an appendage of the machine tool and a weapon of war. However, the Cybernetics characteristic of the imperialist utopia is to replace a living, thinking fighting for their own interests the human machine both in production and in war. The instigators of a new world war use Cybernetics for their dirty practical Affairs. Under the guise of promotion of Cybernetics in the countries of imperialism is the involvement of scientists of various specialties to develop new techniques of mass extermination — electronic, SCADA, automatic weapons, design and production of which has become a major industry, the military industry of the capitalist countries. Cybernetics is, thus, not only an ideological weapon of imperialist reaction but also a means of implementing its aggressive military plans.”

Better not write… Class characteristics and methodological characteristics is given accurate and indisputable. To refute it in fact impossible. Because the question before the Communist party acute, or her to continue to destroy the idealism in the science and deny the reactionary pseudoscience of Cybernetics, or to abandon dialectical materialism, the philosophy of the progressive class of employees, and to slide in the priest’s idealism, to lead the country towards the revision of Marxism and the restoration, in the end, the capitalist relations of production. Because there was no scientific argument in favor of Cybernetics. Those who after the Stalinist period of creeping counter-revolution had to justify it, referred to the position of Khrushchev-Brezhnev revisionist leadership of the CPSU.

Now consider the logistical side of the issue. Look at how, what and when developed, were produced in the Soviet Union, which computers, and what the electronic computer then designed, was doing. At the end of 1948 in a secret laboratory in Feofaniya near Kiev, under the supervision of the Director of the Institute of electrical engineering Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and concurrently head of the laboratory of the Institute of precision mechanics and computer technology of the USSR Sergei Alexandrovich Lebedev began work on creating a Small Electronic computing Machine (SECM). In General, the end of 1948, the year was extremely productive time for the creators of the first domestic computers. Lebedev has implemented fundamental principles of computing units, such as:

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1. The presence of arithmetic devices, memory devices, input/output and control;
2. Encoding and storing the program in memory, like numbers.
3. The binary number system to encode numbers and commands;
4. Automatic calculations based on stored programs;
5. The presence of both arithmetic and logical operations;
6. The use of numerical methods to implement calculations;
7. Hierarchical principle of construction of memory;

Proektirovanie installation, debugging SECM were performed in record time, about two years, and carried out by only 17 people. It was a team of 12 researchers and 5 technicians. The trial run of machines SECM was held on 6 November 1950, the regular operation on 25 December 1951. Lebedev was proposed, justified and implemented the principles of the computer with hranimoj in memory the program. This is regardless of John von Neumann. In 1953, the team headed by S. A. Lebedev created the first great computer — BESM-1 (Large Electronic computing Machine), released in a single copy. It was created in Moscow, in the Institute of precision mechanics (abbreviated ITM) and the Computing center of the USSR, whose Director became S. A. Lebedev, and was collected at the Moscow plant accounting machines (abbreviated). After picking the advanced circuitry of RAM BESM-1, its speed has reached to 10,000 operations per second — on par with the best in the United States and the best in Europe. In 1958, after another upgrade RAM BESM, called BESM-2 was prepared for serial production at a factory Union, which was carried out in an amount of several tens. Computers first generation was produced in the USSR for quite a long time. Even in 1964 in Penza has continued to be a computer “Ural-4”, serve for the economic calculations.

The second stage of development of computing machinery of the USSR.

The second stage of the development of computer technology of the late 50’s-early 60-ies is characterized by the creation of developed programming languages. This ALGOL, and Fortran, and COBOL… the Development of process automation control flow tasks using the computer, that is, the development of operating systems. Came multiprogramming mode of data processing. The most characteristic features of these computers, usually called “computers of the second generation”:
the combination of the operations of I/o with computation in the Central processor;
— the increase in RAM and the external memory;
— the use of alphanumeric devices for input and output data;
— a “closed” mode for users: the programmer is already not allowed in the computer room, just handed over the program in algorithmic language to the operator to further pass on the car.

The counter-revolution.

Counter-revolutionary capitalist transformation emanating from the stagnation of the Communist party, then it’s not reflecting the interests and aspirations of the proletariat, a painful blow across the huge economic complex of the country. Created gradually and specifically the conditions for the emergence of the bourgeois class and the restoration of the old capitalist relations of production were abolished by the counter-revolutionaries in law the dictatorship of the proletariat. Now it replaced the harmful to socialism, the situation of attenuation of the class struggle and the national state, which tried in the days of Stalin to push the Trotskyist opposition-the counter-revolutionaries, like Rykov and Bukharin. In a period of stagnation, the Kosygin reforms that introduce market mechanisms in a socialist basis, the transfer of enterprises to the accounting system of their profitability, not how to follow their plan. Yes, how would these reforms helped to increase the profits of individual businesses, but was crippled by the planning system as a whole, gave rise to disruptions in production, distribution of goods, especially goods of a class B, which began after 1965 and gradually disappearing, falling also their quality. This was strongly felt by Soviet citizens, especially in rural areas and in remote from the capital. The negative change in SOC. the basis from the party, add-ins, stretched the gap and other parts of this add-in, for example, such important as science. The “charm” of self-financing experienced employees of the intellectual sphere and workers, scientists of the sphere of precision engineering.

Copy became more profitable from the point of view of cost savings, but not from the point of view of development of productive forces for socialist system and to meet the ever growing needs of the workers. In 1968, the year adopted a Directive, “a Number”, on which the further development of computer technology of the USSR was heading towards cloning computers IBM S/360. Sergey Lebedev, remained at the time a leading engineer-electrician of the country, spoke about “a Number of” negative – path copying, by definition, was expensive Laggards. But the leadership of the country in the late 60-ies a decision was taken to replace all the different national development of the middle class on a Single Family computer based on the architecture of the IBM 360-the American counterpart. At the level of the Ministry had made a similar decision in respect of mini-computers. Then, in the second half of 70-ies, as the General line for mini – and micro-computer approved the architecture of the PDP-11 also, foreign firms DEC. The decision inherently monstrous. As a result, the domestic computer manufacturers have been forced to replicate outdated models of IBM-wcss computing. It was the beginning of the end. It was, without exaggeration, diversion. The development of medium and small computers in the Soviet Union in connection with this step of the counter-revolutionaries has been delayed a long time. Harming officials-revisionists of the ruling elite of that time, Soviet computer technology have closed the path to development.

From now on, all had to copy the outdated American equipment. Since the early 70-ies of the development of small and medium-computer technology in the Soviet Union began to deteriorate. Was organized, VNIINEFT. Was disbanded along with it, almost all creative teams, closed competitive development. From now on, all had to copy shtatovskih technique, and not the perfect. Giant team this VNIINEFT copied IBM, and the staff INEUM — DEC. Instead of further development-developed and tested concepts of computer of enormous power of computing institutions in the country became engaged in the mechanical line copying Western computers, because it was the cold war, export of modern technologies of the computer industry in the USSR, in most of the imperialist countries was prohibited by law. The domestic electronic industry had embarked on the path of cloning of the American components to enable the creation of analogs of Western computers.
However, this sad state of Affairs was not rolled all the domestic original development. So, since 1975, by a group of I. V. prangishvili and V. V. Rezanov in the scientific-production Association “Impuls” started to be developed a computer system PS-2000 with a speed of 200 million operations per second was put into production in 1980 and used mainly for processing geophysical data, the search for new mineral deposits. In this complex were used to the maximum possible parallel execution of commands of the program, which was achieved by cleverly designed architecture. Team V. S. Burtsev continued work on a series of computers “Elbrus”, and in 1980 the computer “Elbrus-1” with a speed of up to 15 million operations per second was put into production. Symmetric multiprocessor architecture with shared memory, implementation of secure programming with hardware data types, superscalarity processor and a single operating system for multiprocessor systems — all of these features implemented in a series of “Elbrus”, appeared earlier than in the West. In 1985, the next model in this series, “Elbrus-2” were already completed 125 million operations per second. Large Soviet computers is in many respects superior to Western models, and the cost is much cheaper.

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Since 1991, with the destruction of the Soviet Union, the former Soviet science fell on hard times. The bourgeoisie Rviii other former republics of the socialist state is not pulled stolen from the Soviet people a huge economic complex, it was not profitable, not worked to create a maximum profit in the shortest period of time. Therefore, the bourgeoisie embarked on its destruction, and the Soviet science with him, as not corresponding to the interests of the business. Stop funding the bourgeois States the vast majority of research projects. Also, due to the destruction of the socialist system broke off the relationship manufacturers of computers of the former Soviet republics, now the CIS countries and the EU. Ambitious, organized by computer industry became impossible. Many developers domestic computer technology were forced to work not by profession, wasting skills and time. A single prototype was manufactured in the Soviet era of the computer “Elbrus-3”, two times faster than the fastest American supercar of that time Cray Y-MP, in 1994, was a capitalist criminals dismantled and put under the press. The remaining research Institute began to create a large computing system based on imported components. So, in scientific research Institute “Kvant” under the leadership of V. K. Levin are developing a computing system MVS-100 and MVS-1000, based on foreign processors Alpha 21164 (production DEC-Compaq). However, the acquisition of such equipment is now hampered by the current embargo on the export to Russia of high technologies. The possibility of application of such systems in defense systems is extremely doubtful, — no one knows how many they can find built-in specially marriages with bugs that trigger signal and disabling the system. Another is an Assembly of computers from imported components and the creation of separate devices, such as motherboards, again all of cheap imported finished components, with placed production orders in the factories of South-East Asia, as where the workforce is cheaper and corny laws to its social services. However, such developments are quite few.

What is the future for our electronics, particularly the computer industry under capitalism, given the above facts? When socialism was in need of a new productive power, heavy-duty computers to simplify the regulation of the production process. The progress of science and technology should be in complete accordance with the production forces and relations in a socialist society.

Improvement of socialist production as a whole was responsible and meets the urgent needs of the society. The United States its first computer used 70 years ago, primarily in the military field. Spared capitalists the cost of improving technology only in those sectors that serve the interests of the war — the most profitable business, and keep under control the indignant proletariat through computer games, social networks and other intoxicating consciousness of the workers things. In the social networks or games, there’s nothing wrong, it’s really a step forward in the development of the productive forces, but their use by businesses and monopolies for the sake of profit turns them into an instrument for pumping from user of money, often cripples the mind, including the nursery. New technologies in the field of computers and the Internet, if they are not profitable, are not a priority of production for the exploiting class. But modern computers, the Internet is such a progressive productive force, which fully can be used for the organization of a planned economy on a world scale, quickly and efficiently. It remains only to abolish private property of the means of production, to take the factories and other means of production from the bourgeoisie, and to proclaim socialism.

Comrade Basil



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