On September 26 took place the elections of the President of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Contenders, of which there were five, advanced programs, appeared quite similar to one another, and time to turn attention to the need to expand the powers of the Academy, raise its status, the intensification of the relations with the authorities, consolidation of the scientific-methodical expert functions, etc. In the end, the proposal had a single goal — the separation of powers of the RAS and FANO (Federal Agency of Science and Education) and to receive the greatest possible independence of the Academy from the custody of the Agency.
Four years ago, was adopted the law “On the reform of the RAS”, resulting in the Russian Academy of Sciences, medical and agricultural academies were merged. In addition, a new organization — the Federal Agency of Science and Education, controlling the property of the Academy, which was engaged in fact, only scientific research. The scientific community was indignant and wrote an open letter to the President expressed concerns about a decrease in the efficiency of its work, the loss of numerous properties, degradation, domestic science, etc., and a number of prominent scientists even refused to join the new Academy.
In 2013, CNPI conducted an expert survey, in which experts said that the causes of the RAS reform lay mainly in the field of Mercantile interests (the redistribution of property and financial management). Although the need to reform the science sector and pointed out by most experts, but a fantastic environment in which reforms were carried out (closeness, suddenly, isolation from the scientific community) was assessed as unacceptable and threatening the position of Russian science. There were other polls as expert and national. But public opinion wasn’t considered, the initiatives of the Russian Government was immediately realized and in fact no discussion on the question of the fate of RAS is not affected.
Today our science is in a serious crisis, and which figure at the helm of the Academy, it is unlikely that it can significantly change. Because the crisis is systemic, and the problems started in this area, not with the beginning of the reform, it is much more durable and long-established trend, and is directly connected with the course and condition of the country as a whole. Who eventually became the new President of RAS academician Alexander Sergeyev, is a conservative figure and protégé of the former head of the RAS Vladimir Fortov, so that the majority of votes of the members of the Academy in the second round was given to him, in principle, expected.
At the General meeting of members of the Academy read the parting words of the Prime Minister, in which, inter alia, contained the following message: “we need a science that can offer practical and effective solutions to those problems and challenges facing the country. Science, which will help Russia to make a breakthrough in the economy and social sphere, to ensure their sustainable development, create high performance workplaces. So fundamentally change and improve the lives of millions of people.” I’d like to ask: “is that right, Mr President?”. Not during any of finding you and your fellow liberals in power have changed, destroyed and adequate funding of science and its material-technical base and personnel potential? Are these not the years, during the reign of the liberal regime, accumulated and increased the deficit of professional personnel, misuse of material resources, the simulation of scientific discoveries, the outflow of young people from science, outdated infrastructure?
Let’s give some illustrations.
1. For the last sixteen years, there has been almost twofold reduction in the funding of basic scientific research — from 47.2% in 2000 year to 26.1% in 2016. of Course in favor of applied researches (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Financing science from the Federal budget (based on the data of Rosstat)
In fact, the development of science is based on fundamental developments. The application layer is of course very important but without basic fundamental impossible on a qualitative level, because it becomes a profanation, grantourismo, and, ultimately, leads to technological dependence on the leaders of progress, backwardness and decline of industry. To expect innovative breakthroughs from science, the fundamental sector which is financed by a residual principle, anyway, to wait for results from Olympic athlete, long retired.
2. In this same period there was a reduction in the number of research organizations from 2686 in 2000, the year before 1673 in 2016, the project design and survey — from 85 to 26 (Fig. 2). Despite the fact that the total number of organizations engaged in research and development, in Russia practically has not changed, that, in General, the official reported performance not much to spoil. But the stability can only be ensured by the share of universities involved in research work, performing the same prikladna research grant, etc., because in the conditions of market and commercialization of education, they are forced to make a living.
Fig. 2. The number of organizations engaged in research and development (constructed according to Rosstat)
3. For three five-year period parallel to the decrease in the number of scientific organizations, 1.2 times decreased and the number of people employed in this field workers (Fig. 3). And the average age of researchers with a degree doctors in the public sector increased from 59 years in 1998 to 63 in 2014, which indicates that young scientists for doctoral dissertations are not prepared, therefore, a bad turnover of scientific personnel and low capacity of continuity in science.
Fig. 3. The number of staff involved in scientific research and development (constructed according to Rosstat)
4. Plus nabivshy nauseam the problem of “brain drain”, which, however, is not solved but compounded.
In the United States, there are currently 16 thousand doctors of Sciences, who emigrated from Russia, whereas in our country they left 28 thousand That is one in three had obtained a doctoral degree, trained in our country, now working for the benefit of another state, and, in connection with the geopolitical situation, actually works to the detriment of the interests of their country. Emigrating not only to the States, given in the statistics of European countries, the ratio is one to one. It is worth noting the qualitative component — leaving, as a rule, the most able, promising and productive scientists. According to the UN study, departure from the country of one person with higher education, causing damage ranging from 300 to 800 thousand dollars. This is a direct threat to Russia’s national security.
5. A significant indicator of the state of science in the country — the share of its contribution to the totality of the world of scientific discoveries. During the Soviet era, the USSR contributed about 14% to the world of science (mainly due to space, energy and geographical discoveries), the peak was reached in the 70s, when the share of the USSR had 18%. In the post-Soviet era the country’s contribution amounted to about 4%, and the arguments that Russia — is not the whole of the USSR, is not enough.
Speaking of cross-country comparisons could also be mentioned that the share of world expenditure on R & d Russia now owns less than 2% (according to UNESCO report, in 2013-m to year in the proportion of world R & d expenditure 28.9 percent belongs to the United States, Europe, 22.7 per cent, China is 19.6%, Japan 9.6 per cent).
In principle, many more examples of clearly describing the state of the domestic science and the degree of its bureaucratization, and patent activity of Russian scientists, and the proportion of publications and citations compared to the world, and the cost of research and development in % of GDP. And all of these indicators, our country, thanks to the success of twenty years of liberal control, it will look extremely unflattering.
So the wishes of Mr look whether mockery, or outright science fiction, to which our fellow citizens, however, podpravili. “Quality change and improve the lives of millions of people,” the Prime Minister forces of the Russian science in the current conditions of its existence does not work well. Here’s a change that needs to be much more global, starting with the rejection of the liberal cosmopolitan paradigm for the development of the country and the development of the ideology-oriented national interests. But standing at the helm of the team is no longer able.
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