We often wonder how high the posts are people who are not notable for their intelligence, wit or charisma? And there is nothing strange: just action in their case, has entered the law of negative selection.
In search of an answer to the question, why come to power the people can hardly be called “the conscience of the nation”, refer to psychology. According to Sigmund Freud, the desire to dominate is one of the types of neurotic insanity, stemming from feelings of helplessness and fear of the outside world. Moreover, the Austrian psychoanalyst argues that the power of the human need for sacrifice, that he finds in the slave, with him forming a sadomasochistic couple.
Alfred Adler and even writes that the basis of the desire for power lying is a pathological phenomenon of “inferiority complex”. The human psyche, getting rid of traumatic experiences, for example, the constant humiliation triggers the overcompensation, which is expressed in obsessive need for superiority over others.
However, according to Adler this striving is often unmet, and the man who reached power all of its systems begins to project onto others, creating new problems.
Another classic Erich Fromm noted that “in the psychological sense, the lust for power is rooted not in strength but in weakness. It manifests the inability of the individual to stand alone and live by his power. The greater the desire for power – the more clear dependence of the individual from others.”
Darwin’s theory of “natural selection”, applicable in biology, successfully characterize and model the social system of our society. The main challenge in the fierce competition to survive. Sometimes at any price. In this case, the moral aspects that hinder the adaptability of the individual to the new conditions go by the wayside, and often does turn into rudiments.
Sociologist Pitirim Sorokin, the first to use the term “negative selection”, the break-up of the individual striving for power people associate with the loss of “sensual culture”. In his opinion, “the need of pleasure so violate the mental and moral balance that the mind and the nervous system many people are unable to withstand the tremendous tension.”
To resist degradation only possible with having strong convictions and moral principles. But if a person has no moral standards, no concept of rights and standards, what, then, can keep him from neglecting the interests of others? “Nothing but desire and lust” – meets Sorokin.
On the hook
Modern sociologists investigating the phenomenon of “negative selection” of power, come to the conclusion that it is not so much degradation, how much is artificially conducted personnel policy, at the time, which has been successfully tested by intelligence agencies. In the practice of intelligence agencies have long used the method of infusion of an agent “on the hook” when last presented incriminating evidence, and with it the ways of manipulation.
In politics the place of the agent is corrupt official or businessman with a criminal past. The presence of dirt makes it manageable and obedient. It is hardly possible to speak of moral or professional qualities of this “head”. Even more revealing in this respect a puppet government that came to power after the “color revolutions”.
To lower was worse
“Negative selection”, many rulers and subordinate officials deliberately conducted in the reality of the Supreme power. Objective – the weakening of a lower hierarchy. These officials have been trying to kill two birds with one stone: to be in an advantageous position compared to the careless subordinates and to eliminate possible competitors in struggle for a place under the sun.
According to Dmitry Sedov of the strategic culture Foundation, these processes are typical for many totalitarian systems of control, including the Soviet.
The spirit of collectivism
Despite the fact that negative selection come to the fore individual goals, this is more of a collectivist phenomenon. Reached power is not so much the master of his personal interests, as a hostage podvinulsja his system. With the dominance in society of liberal values collectivism “negative selection” is weak, but in the conditions of totalitarianism he is revealed in full.
According to Pitirim Sorokin, “in times of acute social upheaval the most fit are not the best and the average, able to blend with the mass in her instinctive motivations and not distilled mind the motives.” Such conditions favour the emergence of a dictator who, becoming faced with a choice between abandoning the moral principles or political failure, prefers the first.
The thirst for power
According to Nobel laureate in Economics Friedrich Hayek, the main slogan of any totalitarian regime – “the end justifies the means”. He distinguishes three criteria for compliance which can be implemented successfully, the dictator:
1. The more educated and intelligent people, the more difficult it is to achieve unanimity. Therefore, the dictator needs to seek support in groups with a low moral and intellectual level and to impose primitive instincts and tastes of the broadest possible strata of the masses.
2. Support better to look among people gullible and obedient – those who are willing to accept any system of values. To Express their views have often and loudly.
3. People are easier to unite on the basis of a negative, not a positive program, so you need to constantly appeal to human nature.
One of the American economists, assessing the possibility of finding in the power of people who are disgusted with the government itself, pessimistic notice that this probability is approximately equal to the probability that a man known for his kindness, will be overseer on the plantation.
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