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Country unpunished plagiarism. In the USSR “borrowed” children’s stories

Страна безнаказанного плагиата. Как в СССР "заимствовали" детские сказки

A short list of the most popular in the Soviet Union of works for children, who are in fact plagiarism

That the USSR did not hesitate to borrow Western inventions, are well known. The Soviet regime cleverly used the “iron curtain” to not buy the official licenses for one or another useful product. No better was the case with intellectual property: free “borrowed” everything from stories movies, to popular tunes. Blogger Maxim Mirovich continues to learn a series of revelations: this time it’s an innocent children’s stories.

“The Golden key”, 1935 and “the adventures of Pinocchio”, 1883

To begin to tell about a couple of textbook examples of plagiarism and borrowing, which you all probably already heard. Number one on my list is “the Golden Key” by Alexei Tolstoy, heroes and part of the storyline is based on “Pinocchio” Italian fairy tales of Charles Collodi that was published 50 years earlier. In the Carl Collodi tale an old carpenter named Antonio (who became Tolstoy’s the organ-grinder Carlo) finds a piece of wood and is going to make him a foot to the table, but a piece of wood begins to complain of pain and tickling. Antonio goes to his friend, Gepetto (converted from thick to Giuseppe), who tells Antonio to make a log wooden doll. Nothing reminds)? Wise cricket, the girl with turquoise hair, poodle Medoro, rogues, the Fox and the cat, the evil puppet master Mangiafuoco — it’s all there at Collodi. Tolstoy entirely written off, even whole scenes, e.g. the attack of the Fox and Cat in disguise-bags, medical Council of doctors-over the wounded animal Pinocchio, the scene in the tavern of the “Red Cancer” (which was Tolstoy’s “Tavern Three Minnows”) and many others.

“The adventures of Pinocchio” was published in Russian in 1895, 1906, 1908, 1914. Particularly interesting edition of 1924, which was published in translation by Nina Petrovskaya Italian under the editorship of Alexei Tolstoy (ie he edited for 10 years before he wrote “Pinocchio”). According to A. Belinsky — further Thick, close to the government, made the ban on re-releasing “Pinocchio” and Vice versa — lobbied for the release of his “Pinocchio” in huge numbers. And say that the use of state of the item in the interests of the business in this family is inherited)

“The wizard of oz”, 1939 and “the Wizard of Oz” in 1900.


The second example of plagiarism, which you also probably heard his famous “emerald city” writer wolves almost completely copied from the book “the wonderful wizard of Oz” written by American author Lyman Frank Baum in 1900-m to year. Alexander Volkov was a mathematician, knew good English and actually did what they say now, “literary translation” books Baum, published in the journal “pioneer” in 1939. A separate book “the Wizard of oz” was released in 1941 — and neither in the Preface nor in the output, Lyman Frank Baum was not even mentioned. In 1959 he published a second edition of the book, where in the Preface has already been mentioned, the author of American original.

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If you think wolves only copied the first part from the universe of Baum, it is not so, he further drew the plot moves from there — say, in the second book of Baum called “the Wonderful land of Oz” the Scarecrow seized overthrows the emerald city by an army of angry girls under the command of a female General named ginger, who later became a good and kind — it is easy to see here the motives of the Volkov “Urfin Dzhyus and his wooden soldiers”.

Interestingly, the other books Volkova (in addition to the series “emerald city”) remained unknown, and their stories and as I can judge by the title — the verses of “Red Army”, “the Ballad of Soviet pilot”, “Young partisans” and “homeland”, the songs “March of the Komsomol” and “Song of young volunteers”, a radioplay is a “Driver goes to the front”, “Patriots” and “Jersey”and “How to fish a fishing rod. Notes of an angler” (announced as a popular science book).

“The adventures of dunno”, 1954 and “the adventures of the forest people”, 1913.


And now to the less well-known examples of plagiarism) Love books about dunno and his friends? These characters very interesting history of the appearance, in 1952 Nikolai Nosov stayed in Minsk on the anniversary of Yakub Kolas, where he told the Ukrainian writer Bohdan Chalyi about the concept of “dunno” — he decided to write based on the characters Anna Hvolson “the Kingdom of Babies,” which was published in 1889. Anna, in turn, borrowed their characters from the canadian artist and author Palmer Cox, whose comic came out in the 1880s.

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It is the Palmer Cox came up with dunno. This writer has a whole series about little people that live in the forest and go in search of adventure in the comic book “the Amazing adventures of the forest people” they are exactly the same as the heroes of the country, flying to travel on a makeshift hot air balloon. True, we need to add that in contrast to Tolstoy’s and Volkov, Nosova still turned out entirely an independent work with its own story — in fact, he borrowed only the names of the characters and a few plot turns.

Interestingly, Palmer Cox came up with, and other favorite Soviet children Murzilka, this name was the name of one of his heroes in the pre-revolutionary Russian publication Hvolson. However, the hero of the Coke is very different from the Soviet Murzilki (pioneer, journalist and photographer), Coke is a dandified snob in the cylinder, which is somewhat dismissive interacts with other characters of the book and tries not to dirty their white gloves.

“Old Hottabych”, 1938 and “Copper Jug”, 1900.


Not too well-known example of “soft plagiarism”, which can be called borrowing some plot turns are well — known tale about Hottabych Lazar written by Luginin in the 1930-ies, much in common with the book English book, the author F. Anstey called “Copper jug”, which was published in 1900-m to year.

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What the book is about “Copper jug”? A young man finds an old copper jug and unleashes a Genie who is totally unfamiliar with the realities of modern life after the thousand-year imprisonment. Genie Fakrash trying to benefit their liberator, makes a lot of funny things that deliver the liberator only problem. Nothing reminds)? Similarly, as Hottabych, Fakrash does not understand the operation of modern mechanisms and factories believing that they embody Jinn. As you can see, the plots are very similar.

Lazar Lagin moved the action to the USSR, introduced the ideological component — the pioneer Volka does not accept gifts of Genie because of the “contempt for private property,” and constantly tells him about the advantages of living in the USSR, and ending the books are different — Fakrash back into the bottle, and Hottabych continues to live in our days ordinary citizen. “Hottabych” had several editions in 1953 in the midst was the “struggle against cosmopolitanism”, the book added very sharp attacks on the USA, post-colonial authorities of India and so on.

Two years later, in a new edition of the edits removed, but instead added new — on a magic carpet heroes of the book arrived from Moscow under the rule of the capitalists, and immediately became intolerable to suffer) by the Way, wrote that he Lazar Lagin did not touch the text of the book after the release of the first version, and the changes have made it is not clear who.

“Doctor Aybolit”, 1929 and “Doctor Doolittle”, 1920.


For a snack my favorite cocktail is the cherry on the cake — everyone knows the good doctor Aibolit was virtually cleaned debited from Dr. Dolittle, the book which came out ten years earlier. Writer Hugh Lofting came up with your good doctor, sitting in the trenches of the first world war — as a kind of alternative to the terrible reality.

Good doctor Doolittle (from the English. do-little, “do little”) lives in the fictional town treats animals and is able to speak their languages, Dolittle has a few close animals among animals — pig Ha-Gab, a dog, a Jeep, a duck Dub-Dub, monkey Chi-Chi and PushPull. Later, Dolittle goes to Africa to help ill monkeys, his ship is shipwrecked and he is captured by the local king of Jolliginki and experiencing many adventures, but in the end rescues sick animals from the epidemic. Korney Chukovsky argued that the prototype of Dr. Dolittle became tsemakh Shabad, a famous Jewish doctor and social activist from Vilnius, but it is easy to see how similar the plots and characters of tales and heroes Hugh Lofting — even the dark knight was deducted from the African king-villain.

As you can see, even the stories of many famous children’s books in the Soviet Union was, shall we say, “borrowed”. Against this backdrop stands an honest act of Boris Zakhoder — he told Soviet children story about Winnie the Pooh, honestly putting the author Alan Alexander Milne.


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