To give a brief definition of socialism, it is difficult, because, whatever the definition was not given, everyone will understand its told. Engels, in his letter described the future social organization in one sentence: abolition of private property and establishment of community of property. The same is reflected in the Manifesto. But then history has not yet had the experience of building socialism, and neither Marx nor Engels could not analyze this experience. We have no analysis of this experience we cannot tell what socialism is. So I will try to answer, based on this experience.
2. Capitalism only creates the material conditions for the future Communist society, namely, that it is in the pursuit of profit, develops the productive forces, which become public due to the fact that the production of any piece of work becomes social labor process. Today in the production of small rolls, worthless which involved the labor of hundreds of thousands, and possibly millions of people. The labor process for the creation of end products of labour, commodities, become public, but he ripped the private property of separate labour processes to create products. The historical mission of capitalism is to turn individual work of the artisan in the social process of labour, thus giving the productive forces, the social character; it develops the content of the production. Communism seeks to bring the social form of production in accordance with the public content of the productive forces, and this requires the destruction of private property, tearing single public production to private production.
3. Capitalism originated in the bowels of feudal society, for in its inception, capitalist private property, formed on the basis of private property of the artisan, does not conflict with the feudal private ownership. Communism may not arise in the depths of capitalist society, because any movement to communism inevitably will come into conflict with private property. Communism can be established and evolve out of capitalism, so the formation of the Communist mode of production is possible only with the establishment of the political domination of the proletariat and the formation of a proletarian state. The first step of this state in the establishment of Communist relations of production would be to destroy private property and establish social ownership of the means of production, its form will inevitably be the state.
4. The establishment of public ownership of the means of production allows to start creation of Communist relations of production; for their formation requires a certain time period that is a period of transition from capitalism to communism in its first phase.
People don’t come up out of your head, as the occurrence of problems requiring solutions, it appears that the society is already available and ready-made forms for their solutions, they still embryonic, limited, and therefore dormant, but they are able to revive the actual resolution of the problem. Capitalism, making even the first steps of its formation, introduced the division of labor in manufacturing production, thus added to the productive forces of collective, social nature, which demanded the establishment of forms of organization of these social productive forces, namely the systematic organization of production. The basis of the planned organization of production is the allocation of collective work between different types of labor in the enterprise. But this form is limited, because it is always confined to private property and does not cover the whole of social production. The establishment of Communist relations of production is to bring the form of organization of the productive forces in accordance with their social nature, i.e. the creation and approval of planned organization of all social production.
It is necessary to take into account the bitter experience of Soviet planning based on the remaining commodity form of the product of labor. The result of this planning was a commodity plan, the content of which was the relationship between those formulating the plans and monitors their implementation and those who are doing these plans, and this attitude was covered with a proprietary membrane, because it was a real relationship. The company has established a plan in value indicator, expressed in a certain amount of money and execution of plans evaluated for this planned cost parameters. Such an assessment is the systematic organization pushed the enterprise seeks to create products of labor, is designed to meet the needs of, and produce the commodity mass, which together had an aggregate value equal to the installed total cost, expressed in money. This form of planning in force save the commodity form of the products of labor were formed in 20-ies of the last century and lasted until the death of the Soviet system. Thus, the relationship of MERCHANTABILITY entirely permeated Soviet planning, the Soviet blurring in trademark plan, any trace of production of useful things.
Valid systematic organisation of social production involves the allocation of the total social working time for various specific types of production activities. This takes place in capitalist production within the limits of private property, this should be done and in the planning of all social production, but that the community should know the average amount of working time necessary for production of a particular product of labor, whether it is semi-finished product intended for further processing or end product, a commodity. This amount of working time needed to create a particular product of labour, characterizes the productive force of social labor in a given time, and along with the mass of the means of labor determines the possibility of production in a given historical moment.
5. However, capitalism gives us the form of the organization of social productive forces, but does not give the organization of accounting and control of social production on working time. From capitalism goes only to the accounting of the production carried out by private enterprise, and such accounting is cost accounting.
If you look closely at the social process of work on the creation of any product of labor, it turns out that in this work there is nothing but substances of nature and of human labor, whereby sequential processing of natural substances, in order, ultimately, to the piece of work that meets a particular human need.
Therefore, the basis of this accounting is the accounting of working time, at which time, starting with the production of substances of nature, accumulating labor costs further processing of these substances and the final cost of labor to create in the last stages of the product of labor, consumption, taken together, give the total costs of social labor to create the product of labor. In this account we will know how much we need public work on the creation of a product of labor without being given time to Express so unreliable as what is money, because prices of goods do not coincide with the cost.
Based costing, prevailing at the present time has become an anachronism and needs to be replaced based on the operating time. Knowing how much time is required for the production of any product of labour in hours and minutes, translate this time, so unreliable the unit of money is absurd.
To destroy based costing, it is necessary to destroy the very commodity production, and this destroyed the trade exchange between enterprises. To replace the exchange of results of work comes to exchange activities in which the company transfers its intermediate product for further processing to another company without any equivalent, just as a worker within the company transfers to another work item for the subsequent processing. Thus, the conditions for the organization of accounting of production working time.
6. Systematic distribution of public work on various types of production activities carried out on the basis of identifying the needs of the members of the society, on the one hand, and defining production capabilities on the other hand. With this organization of social production needs of members of society becomes the immediate purpose of production in contrast to the exploitative societies in which the immediate goal of production was subordinated to the pumping surplus labor out of workers, whether a slave, a peasant or a proletarian, and only eventually obeyed the order to meet the needs of individuals. Communism is the ultimate goal of all production makes its direct purpose. To achieve this goal in social production creates the total social product, is the aggregate of the products of labor, is designed to meet the needs. Because of the destruction of the commodity form of the products of labor becomes impossible duality of purposes that took place in the Soviet economy, namely, production of aggregate of use-values, on the one hand, and the production gross value, on the other, which led to the separation of state interests from public interests.
7. With this organization of social production it becomes directly to the public. Public ownership of the means of production, including production on working time, the planned organization of social production under the order to meet the needs – all this is typical of both phases of Communist society, as the first, which occurs after a transition period during which there is a formation of these relationships, and higher phase. The differences between these phases lies in the distribution.
The fact that the production was directly public can not change and the distribution system. Produced means of production initially become available to all members of society, the distribution of direct social production are only commodities. But the method of distribution that will take place in the society depends on the level of development of the productive forces of society, on the one hand, and the level of development of society, on the other hand. The first phase of Communist society occurs soon after the society came from the bowels of the capitalist dungeons. Capitalism creates the material conditions for a Communist society that gives the productive forces, the social character, but the structure of these productive forces will not match the structure of needs in society, especially in the present time when the labor process is transformed from a public, national process of labor in the international process. This will require a restructuring of the productive forces like industrialization conducted in the USSR.
Therefore, at the initial stage of the first phase we do not have the productive forces which would provide us with an abundance of products. In addition, people who are destined to build a Communist society at the initial stage only emerged from capitalism and their consciousness is still wholly amazed by the bourgeois, which will manifest in their actions. In such circumstances, the distribution of objects is only possible for labor. In the basis of distribution according to work is the same principle that takes place in capitalist commodity exchange in the exchange of equivalents. But this principle is laid in the distribution, not the exchange. Under this principle, everyone receives from society is the amount of products of labour, in which is embodied the same quantity of labor time a person spent in public production, less in public funds (education, health, etc.). Under the condition of abstraction from the accumulation of the total social labor time exists in two ways. In 1-x, it exists as expenditure of a man of his labor during a certain time and that time is its share of total working period. And in-2, the same amount of time exists in reified form of labor created products of labor.
Thus, the distribution of the work implies:
– qualitative unity of measure of the labor and products of labor, is a measure of working time expressed in hours and minutes. To account for the human labor, as the time worked in hours and minutes, and the product of labor as reified time in the same hour and minute. Qualitative uniformity of measurement creates equality, for no one nothing else can give, except labor.
– the basis of distribution according to work is the principle of exchange of equivalents, how many labor people have given to society in one form less in public funds, the same amount of labour he receives from society in another form.
– the distribution of labour creates a situation in which to improve their well-being, i.e. to be able to get more of the products of labor, is possible only by saving labor and thereby reducing the amount of labor embodied in products. Thus, each working for yourself, working for all and all work for everyone.
And only when they developed the productive forces so that there would be an abundance of products of labour, will be destroyed when the difference between the mental and the physical, managerial and productive labor when labor itself will be the first human need, it will be possible to transition to distribution according to needs and society will step into a higher phase of Communist society.
9. The described set of production relations, as you can see, the relationship between each production relation follows from the progress towards elimination of the contradictions between the productive forces and relations of production that exists in a capitalist society. The implementation of a given set of production relations of production, exchange and distribution on the one hand, generates the need to organize the management of production directly by the workers themselves, and on the other hand, creates the possibility that workers could control of social production. As you know who controls the material production that operates in the state, for the state is the apparatus of the ruling class.
10. To carry out a social revolution, namely, the breaking of the totality of relations of production for the entire period of the transition period the proletarian state need to 1) destroy the exploiting classes; 2) to deal with the manifestations of petty-bourgeois, private property the habits of the people who have just emerged from conditions of capitalist hell. Therefore, the question of the state can not stand demand the destruction of the state, like commodity production destroyed. The state is not destroyed, it dies in the process of development of the productive forces and the emergence of new forms of public authorities in process of development, the establishment of Communist relations of production is, at the same time, and creation of conditions for the withering away of the state. As soon as the will disposed of the subject to the division of labor, how to develop self-government the process of production and public Affairs that people will grow up a habit to work for all, and labor will become a natural need of man, will gradually wither away certain functions of the state. Therefore, the final decision of the question of the disappearance of the state from the historical arena will be resolved in the development of societies based on Communist relations of production.
11. And last, sometimes putting forward the question concerning the possibility and impossibility of return, in capitalism, what happened to the Soviet society. This is really interesting. The history of mankind shows that only changes in the labor process create the conditions under which turning back becomes impossible, and these changes, as we already know, are determined by the level of development of productive forces and, accordingly, the productive force of labor.
a) If you look on the peasant war in Germany in the early 16th century, we see that it was held under the awareness of the injustice and inequality of the existing social order of that time. The struggle for justice and equality permeates the peasant uprisings, their ideas about equality and justice draws from the past, mindful of generic relationships. But the existing level of development of productive forces and labour productivity, on the one hand, was too tall to revive the generic relationships, based on collective production because of the primitive tools, but on the other hand, is too underdeveloped to engender a single community based on shared co-production, the production can be only individual. Today we look back there is no need, our gaze should be directed in the future.
b) Capitalism grew out of handicraft production, but it has revolutionized the labor process turned individual work of the artisan collective, public-house process. Artisan has consistently carried out all the operations to transform the substances of nature into an object of consumption. In the manufactory the whole process was fragmented between different workers, each performing only one particular operation, the creation of the object of consumption has become a collective product. Partial work was not able to perform all operations that were carried out by the craftsman, he could only participate in the production process as a member of a single production team, a return to artisan production became impossible. And that is the impossibility of a return to craft production gives rise to the incompatibility of capitalist production, based on employment of a free citizen, and of feudal production, resting on the personal dependence of the peasant on the feudal Lord.
C) Why is it so easy was the restoration of capitalism in the USSR and other socialist countries? Yes, because Soviet production was imbued with bourgeois. First, remained the commodity form of the products of labor. Secondly, the man in the production is reduced to the value of his labor. Thirdly, the process of labour was no different from what we see in any capitalist enterprise. Fourth, preserved the subordination of workers to the existing division of labour that was expressed in the Department of managerial labor from productive labor. To change anything in the production is not necessary, only need one thing to change the sign “state enterprise” to “private enterprise,” and it skillfully was made as a result of privatization. Only after creating the above set of really Communist relations of production and converting on that basis, the labor process, as the process of organization of social production, will be created the point of no return.
© Comrade Evdokimov.
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